DIN standards definition guide for automotive electrical components. Standardisation of products available from Ignition and current supply. Code, Function. 1, Coil, distributor – low voltage. 1a, To contact breaker I (distributor with 2 separate circuits). 1b, To contact breaker II . Contact, Meaning, Old terminal designition. Ignition system. 1, ignition coil, distributor, low voltage. 1a, 1b, distributor with two separate circuits. 2, breaker points.
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DIN is a DIN standard for automobile electric terminal numbers, standardizing almost every contact in an automobile with a number code. A different standard, European Norm EN recommends terminal numbering for general application relays e. Car — A car is a wheeled, self-powered motor vehicle used for transportation and a product of the automotive industry.
The year is regarded as the year of the modern car. In that year, German inventor Karl Benz built the Benz Patent-Motorwagen, cars did not become widely available until the early 20th century. One of the first cars that was accessible to the masses was the Model T, an American car manufactured by the Ford Motor Company.
Cars were rapidly adopted in the United States of America, where they replaced animal-drawn carriages and carts, cars are equipped with controls used for driving, parking, passenger comfort and safety, and controlling a variety of lights. Over the decades, additional features and controls have been added to vehicles, examples include rear reversing cameras, air conditioning, navigation systems, and in car entertainment.
Most cars in use in the s are propelled by a combustion engine. Both fuels cause air pollution and are blamed for contributing to climate change.
Automotive component pin assignments to DIN 72552
Vehicles using alternative fuels such as ethanol flexible-fuel vehicles and natural gas vehicles are also gaining popularity in some countries, electric cars, which were invented early in the history of the car, began to become commercially available in There are costs and benefits to car use, the costs of car usage include the cost of, acquiring the vehicle, interest payments, repairs 7552 auto maintenance, fuel, depreciation, driving time, parking fees, taxes, and dn.
The costs to society of car use include, maintaining roads, land use, road congestion, air pollution, public health, health care, road traffic accidents are the largest cause of injury-related deaths worldwide.
The benefits may include transportation, mobility, independence. The ability for humans to move flexibly from place to place has far-reaching implications for the nature of societies and it was estimated in that the number of cars had risen to over 1 billion vehicles, up from the million of The numbers are increasing rapidly, especially in China, India, the word car is believed to dib from the Latin word carrus or dih, or the Middle English word carre.
DIN – Wikipedia
In turn, these originated from the Gaulish word karros, the Gaulish language was a branch of the Brythoic language which also used the word Karr, the Brythonig language evolved into Welsh where Car llusg and car rhyfel still survive. It originally referred to any wheeled vehicle, such as a cart, carriage. Motor car is attested fromand is the formal name for cars in British English.
Autocar is a variant that is attested from Ignition system — The widest application for spark ignition internal combustion engines is in petrol fin vehicles, cars, four-by-fours, motorcycles, pickups, vans, trucks, and buses.
Compression ignition Diesel engines ignite the mixture by the heat of compression. They usually have glowplugs that preheat the combustion chamber to allow starting in cold weather, other engines may use a flame, or a heated tube, for ignition. While this was common for very early engines it is now rare, the first electric spark ignition was probably Alessandro Voltas toy electric pistol from the s. The simplest form of ignition is that using a magneto. The spark plugs are connected directly from the magneto output, early magnetos had one coil, with the contact breaker inside the combustion chamber.
In aboutBosch introduced a double-coil magneto, with a fixed sparking plug, and they are also used on piston-engined aircraft engines. Although an electrical supply is available, magneto systems are used mainly because of their higher reliability, magnetos were used in these engines because their simplicity and self-contained operation was more reliable, and because magnetos weighed less than having a battery and dynamo or alternator.
The Wright brothers used a magneto invented in and built for them in by Dayton, Ohio inventor and this gave the benefits of easy starting with reliable sparking at speed. Many modern magneto systems have removed the second coil from the magneto itself, in this development, the induced current in the coil in the magneto also flows through the primary of the external coil, generating a high voltage in the secondary as a result.
Such a system is referred to as a transfer system. Energy transfer systems provide the ultimate in ignition reliability, the output of a magneto depends on the speed of the engine, and therefore starting can be problematic.
Some magnetos include a system, which spins the magnet quickly at the proper moment.
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Some engines, such as aircraft rin also the Ford Model T, used a system which relied on non rechargeable dry cells, the operator would manually switch the ignition over to magneto operation for high speed operation. To provide high voltage for the spark from the low voltage batteries, a tickler was used, in this mode of operation, the coil would buzz continuously, producing a constant train of sparks.
The entire apparatus was known as the Model T spark coil, in the UK these devices were commonly known as trembler coils and were popular in cars pre, and also in commercial vehicles with large engines until around to 7252 starting.
In either case, the low voltage was switched to the spark plug by the timer mounted on the front of the engine. This performed the equivalent function to the distributor, although by directing the low voltage. Distributor — A distributor is an enclosed rotating shaft used in spark-ignition internal vin engines that have mechanically-timed ignition.
The distributors main function is secondary, or high voltage, current from the ignition coil to the spark plugs in the correct firing order. Except in magneto systems, the distributor also houses a mechanical 72552 inductive breaker switch to open, the first reliable battery operated ignition was developed by Dayton Engineering Laboratories Co.
This ignition was developed by Charles Kettering and was considered a wonder in its day, atwater Kent invented his Unisparker ignition system about this time in competition with the Delco system. A distributor consists of an arm or rotor inside the distributor cap, on top of the distributor shaft, but insulated from it. The distributor shaft is driven by a gear on the camshaft on most overhead valve engines, the metal part of the rotor contacts the fin voltage cable from the ignition coil via a spring-loaded carbon brush on the underside of the distributor cap.
The metal part of the arm passes close to the output contacts which connect via high tension leads to the spark plug of each djn. As the rotor spins within the distributor, electric current is able to jump the small gaps created between the arm and the contacts due to the high voltage created by the rin coil. The distributor shaft has a cam that operates the contact don, opening the points causes a high induction voltage in the systems ignition coil.
In addition, the distributor has a vacuum advance unit that advances the ein even further as a function of the vacuum in the inlet manifold, usually there is also a capacitor attached to the distributor. The capacitor is connected parallel to the points, to suppress sparking to prevent excessive wear of the points. Around the s the primary breaker points were replaced with a Hall effect sensor or optical sensor. As this is a device and the ignition coil is controlled by solid state electronics.
This also eliminates any problem sin breaker follower or cam wear, the remaining secondary circuit stayed essentially the same, using an ignition coil and a rotary distributor. Most distributors dln on electronically fuel injected engines lack vacuum and centrifugal advance units, on such distributors, the timing advance is controlled electronically by the engine computer.
This allows more control of ignition timing, as well as the ability to alter timing based on factors other than engine speed.
Additionally, eliminating vacuum and centrifugal advance results in a simpler, the distributor cap is the cover that protects the distributors internal parts and holds the contacts between internal rotor and the spark plug wires.
The distributor cap has one post for each cylinder, and in points ignition systems there is a central post for the current from the ignition coil coming into the distributor. Resistor — A resistor is a passive two-terminal electrical component that implements electrical resistance as a circuit element.
In electronic circuits, resistors are used to reduce current flow, adjust signal levels, to divide voltages, bias ein elements, and terminate transmission lines, among other uses. High-power resistors that can dissipate many watts of power as heat may be used as part of motor controls, in power distribution systems.
Fixed resistors have resistances that only slightly with temperature, time or operating voltage. Variable resistors can be used to adjust circuit elements, or as sensing devices for heat, 7252, humidity, force, Di are common elements of electrical networks and electronic circuits and 7252 ubiquitous in electronic equipment.
Practical resistors as discrete components can be composed of various compounds, Resistors are also implemented within integrated circuits. The electrical function of a resistor is specified by its resistance, the nominal value of the resistance falls within the manufacturing tolerance, indicated on the component.
Two typical schematic diagram symbols are as follows, The notation to state a resistors value in a circuit diagram varies, one common scheme is the letter and digit code for resistance values following IEC It avoids using a separator and replaces the decimal separator with a letter loosely associated with SI prefixes corresponding with the parts resistance.
For example, 8K2 as part marking code, in a diagram or in a bill of materials indicates a resistor value of 8. Additional zeros imply a tighter tolerance, for example 15M0 for three 725552 digits, when the value can be expressed without the need for a prefix, an R is used instead of the decimal separator.
For example, 1R2 indicates 1. Practical resistors also have some inductance and capacitance which affect the relation between voltage and current in alternating current circuits, the ohm is the SI unit of electrical resistance, named after Georg Simon Ohm. An ohm is equivalent to a volt per ampere, since resistors are specified and manufactured over a very large range of values, the derived units of milliohm, kilohm, and megohm are also in common usage.
The total resistance of resistors connected in series is the sum of their resistance values. For example, a 10 ohm resistor connected in parallel with a 5 ohm resistor, a resistor network that is a combination of parallel and series connections can be broken up into smaller parts that are either one or the other. Battery electricity — An electric battery is a device consisting of one or more electrochemical cells with external connections provided to power electrical devices such as flashlights, smartphones, and electric cars.
When a battery is supplying power, its positive terminal is the cathode. The terminal marked negative is the source of electrons that when connected to a circuit will flow. It is the movement of ions within the battery which allows current to flow out of the battery to perform work. Historically the term specifically referred to a device composed of multiple cells. Primary batteries are used once and discarded, the materials are irreversibly changed during discharge. Common examples are the battery used for flashlights and a multitude of portable electronic devices.
Secondary batteries can be discharged and recharged multiple times using mains power from a wall socket, examples include the lead-acid batteries used in vehicles and lithium-ion batteries used for portable electronics such as laptops and smartphones. Batteries have much lower energy than common fuels such as gasoline.
This is somewhat offset by the efficiency of electric motors in producing mechanical work. The usage of battery to describe a group of electrical devices dates to Benjamin Franklin, alessandro Volta built and described the first electrochemical battery, the voltaic pile, in This was a stack of copper and zinc plates, separated by brine-soaked paper disks, Volta did not understand that the voltage was due to chemical reactions.
Although early batteries were of value for experimental purposes, in practice their voltages fluctuated. It consisted of a pot filled with a copper sulfate solution, in which was immersed an unglazed earthenware container filled with sulfuric acid.
These wet cells used liquid electrolytes, which were prone to leakage and spillage if not handled correctly, many used glass jars to hold their components, which made them fragile and potentially dangerous. These characteristics made wet cells unsuitable for portable appliances, near the end of the nineteenth century, the invention of dry cell batteries, which replaced the liquid electrolyte with a paste, made portable electrical devices practical. Batteries convert chemical energy directly to electrical energy, a battery consists of some number of voltaic cells.
Diesel engine — Diesel engines work by compressing only the air. This increases the air temperature inside the cylinder to such a degree that it ignites atomised diesel fuel that is injected into the combustion chamber.
This contrasts with spark-ignition engines such as an engine or gas engine. In diesel engines, glow plugs may be used to aid starting in cold weather, or when the engine uses a lower compression-ratio, the original diesel engine operates on the constant pressure cycle of gradual combustion and produces no audible knock.
Diesel engines may be designed as either two-stroke or four-stroke cycles and they were originally used as a more efficient replacement for stationary steam engines. Since the s they have used in submarines and ships.
Use in locomotives, trucks, heavy equipment and electricity generation plants followed later, in the s, they slowly began to be used in a few automobiles. Since the s, the use of engines in larger on-road and off-road vehicles in the US increased.
To some it may be an engine that uses heavy fuel oil, to others an engine that does not use spark ignition. However the original cycle proposed by Rudolf Diesel in was a constant temperature cycle which would require higher compression than what is needed for compression ignition.