ASTM. D. D Standard Guide for Evaluating Nonwoven Fabrics. 1. Scope. This guide covers procedures for testing nonwoven fabrics. Find the most up-to-date version of ASTM D at Engineering This standard is issued under the fixed designation D ; the number 1 This guide is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee D13 on Textiles and.
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Keywords nonwoven cotton surface properties cellulose water of hydration electrokinetic by-products. More statistics for editors and authors Login to your personal dashboard for more detailed statistics on your publications.
The system is equipped with one low water pressure jet head that wets the incoming feed web material on its top face, while two high water pressure jet heads alternatively impact the wetted substrate on either face.
This chapter examines the electrokinetic properties of hydroentangled nonwoven materials made by blending clean greige cotton lint with greige cotton by-product fibers with a view to understanding the similarities the materials possess. For all the fabrics, the low water pressure head was set to inject the water at 50 bars, and the two high water pressure heads were set at bars. Because KFT is specific to water and is carried out under nitrogen, oxidation is eliminated.
December 9th DOI: The values given in parentheses are for information only and may be approximate. The test methods used in the study are as follows: We have no amendments or corrections for this standard.
Standard Guide for Evaluating Nonwoven Fabrics (Withdrawn 2009)
Some of the blends also included polyester fibers for comparison as were previously examined [ 10 ]. How to cite and reference Link to this chapter Copy to clipboard. However, cellulose crystallite size varied.
The samples were weighed into 0. Your Alert Profile lists the documents that will be monitored. December 4th Reviewed: Standards Subscriptions from ANSI provides a money-saving, multi-user solution wstm accessing e1117. This study demonstrates the versatility of nonwoven greige cotton when combined with cotton by-products as putative economical substitutes for synthetic fibers in absorbent applications.
We report here the preparation, characterization, and electrokinetic analysis of cleaned greige cotton [ 16 ] in combination with gin motes and comber noils at two different blend ratios of the greige cotton and the by-products as a measure of the fabric polarity, swelling, and absorbent properties achievable with these fabric blends.
UltraClean cotton, which is a form of greige cotton d1117 2 ], was separately combined with the cotton gin motes and comber noils, whereupon the blends were carded, crosslapped, and subjected to light needle punching prior to their separate hydroentanglement at 50 bar wet-out water pressure and bar hydroentangling water pressure.
The fabric production speed was 5 m per minute. The three constituent cotton fibers employed in the nonwovens were evaluated for dd1117 relative cellulosic crystallinity in relation to their moisture uptake properties.
Balanced material surface polarity, swelling, density, and moisture uptake is key to optimizing absorbent nonwovens for use in hygiene, incontinence, and even wound care applications, and the results of this study illustrate how these properties may be tuned in with cotton by products used in combination with greige cotton lint. There is little data on the presence of waxes and pectin in comber noils and gin motes, so a relative comparison of cotton cuticle contributions is not possible.
However, ordered microfibrillar cellulose, which is composed of cellulose crystallites, possesses surface hydroxyls that present accessible water binding sites where penetrating water may form a monolayer termed nonfreezing water at a level of 0. Built by scientists, for scientists. Crystallinity index and crystallite size of the different fibers. Observation of this phenomenon is based on more accessible water binding sites, i. The Scherrer formula was used to convert the peak width at half maximum pwhm to crystallite sizes perpendicular to the large peak with a shape constant of 1.
ASTM D – ABE-IPS
A peak width at half maximum height of 1. The calculated surface-to-volume ratio of smaller cellulose crystallites, as observed with the cotton by-products, is higher than the greige cotton, which infers more accessible hydroxyls for bound water. An outline schematic of the Fleissner MiniJet system used in the study. The properties of the cotton materials are discussed in light of their water binding properties related to potential absorbent applications.
The differences between KFT and Kett are due, in part, to the different nature astmm the two methods.
August 24th Published: Thus, an increased capacity to hold water is observed as well in the relatively higher absorption capacity of the cotton by-product nonwovens, which have smaller cellulose crystallite size than the greige cotton Table 4. Table 4 gives the percent crystallinity and cellulose crystallite size of the different types of cotton fibers compared with bleached cotton. Experimental materials and methods A commercially available bale d117 precleaned greige cotton was acquired from T.